March 23, 2020
As you know, the menu item “Basic” is mostly cereal. Porridge and Porridge … Rice, bacon, oatmeal and semolina were among the leaders and remained. Next, peas and then – in order – cereals: sorghum, pearl barley, wheat, oatmeal, barley, corn. Perhaps one is amazed at the finished oatmeal and oatmeal in different places. But, remember, there are some differences between them: oatmeal is made from whole grains, and Hercules is made from crushed oatmeal. However, today our focus is not on them, let us focus on the fifth line of the rankings. In general, it seems strange how dried peas are among the mainstream market participants, if it is a food made from it, let’s face it, most of the time – for amateurs. The fact is that the word “pea” has become synonymous here. The experts had the whole bean groceries, at the same time the “relatives” in mind.
Even ancient healers wrote in their parchments: “A person who eats lentils will have health, peace of mind, and peace of mind.” PHOTO C Huetter / TASS
We use the common phrase “under Tsar Peas” in a fragmented version. Absolutely, it looks like: “Under the pea, under the lentils.” About the “king” – everything is clear here: our “man” is Russian or Russian in general. And here is the queen …
Once upon a time at the Russian tables, she was taken away from the last place. True, they began to develop later than peas, but as a food, lentils were mentioned in written sources at the beginning of the 10th-11th centuries. Four hundred years later, the widespread spread was foretold. And in the 19th century, Russia became the leader in lentil production, accounting for 85% (!) Of world exports.
However, mankind has always loved lentils. Although everyone knows from the Bible how Esau sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for lentil stew.
In Roman times, lentils were a major source of trade. In those days, it was formerly considered not only a food but also a medicine crop. And in Turkey, for example, lentils and bean soup are still on the national menu. In Iran, plov is popular with lentils, raisins and dates. In Egypt they love pasta with onions, lentils and spices. In India, the largest lentil supplier in the world, with its presence there are countless dishes: these with lentils with rice, and with broth, and with herbs, and all kinds of lentil soups.
Westerners do not hesitate. In Italy, for example, sausages work with lentils. In Germany on New Year’s Eve, he is confident that the New Year’s meal with lentils will bring prosperity to his family.
In our country, the area under this crop has been declining since the 1960s. The reason is the “low production capacity” in the developing language: lentils require a lot of craftsmanship and are prone to various diseases.
Today, the main crops are found in the Middle Black region, in the southeastern part of the country, in the Volga region (especially in Saratov region). But the total sowing area does not exceed 5,000 hectares. This is too small. So the “queen” is on a ship from a distant land to Russia. Upon arrival, it is temporarily delayed by local filling and packaging enterprises and the “Russian-made” product arrives at the retail shelf. But what a choice!
The most popular lentils are brown, red, bluegrass, and oyster.
* Brown lentils are the most common variety and have a slight almond flavor. Vegetable and vegetable soups are made in Europe and North America.
* Red lentils are popular because they do not take much time to cook: only 10 – 15 minutes. Here you can also boil lentils a little and then safely place lentils in any salad. Grinding red lentils is not scary either – you get delicious porridge.
* “Beluga” – the smallest type of lentil, the beans are actually very similar to the beluga caviar – they are not only small and round but also black.
* Pee – Black-green lentils, the most fragrant of all. It got its name from the French city of his birth. This variety is very strong, it takes a long time to ferment, so nutritionists recommend keeping such lentils in salads.
In St. Petersburg retail, the price of lentils has a big “fork” ranging from 77 rubles per 900 grams package to 320 rubles per kilogram Excellent premium product. However, trade is not limited to discounts for this product.
Pod with two notes
Once upon a time, lentils were a major competitor to other legumes – beans. She came to Russia from France in the Middle Ages. Russian consumers do not want to recognize the refugee as a food product. Pea porridge and lentil stew! And for almost two centuries, beans have been used as a special ornament in the palace gardens.
For the first time, vegetable and bean “decoration” was violated as a potential food only in the middle of the 18th century. By the way, at that time there was no “fa” or “salt” in the cultural name, they called it “Turkish beans”.
For food purposes, beans have long been divided into grains and vegetables. First, ripe dried seeds are eaten. In business, it is usually a grocery product. In vegetable beans, both unripe juice pods and green seeds are used. It is often used to make canned foods. And now there is nothing mysterious about canned beans in the can: it is nothing more than a dry “grain bean”, green is a “vegetable bean”.
Cereals are the most common crop in the world of agriculture. The crop covers an area of 27 million hectares – from tropical areas to tropical zones. Very little is covered with vegetables – about 700,000 hectares. Of these, 120,000 – in China, 150,000 – in India. However, about 500,000 tons of beans last year, while in China – almost 1.5 million.
In Russia, bean culture does not bring significant economic benefits. Even though it is here, it is the only plant in the Russian research institute that has been named. Vavilov has a collection of 8,000 (!) Bean samples. Today, the same amount of land for farming in Russia is allocated as a lentil – more than 5,000 hectares.
In economy-class stores, the collection of cereals is not so large. Peas and beans are a must, lentils are possible (well, two, often one). Supermarket and supermarket are another matter. There, along with the Department of Commodities, there is a demonstration of the ability to carry goods, not only a list of all the species in the copy process, but also other washes. Including those who came to our market soon.
For example, chickpeas. In everyday life – “lamb” (many chicks resemble a sheep’s head in profile). Or mash – “green beans”. This was one of the oldest grains known to man a long time ago, and it is almost impossible to return the original story today. There is also almost soy in its original form. And beans “outside” – dolichos. To fill – a mixture of different grains.
It has long been known that grains are higher in protein than meat products. Moreover, the chemical composition of this miracle protein is close to that of the animal, but it is very easy to assimilate. Nutritionists strongly argue that grains are called “vegetable meat”: they should include 8 – 10% of our diet.
In addition to the “grains” it is also useful. For example, stabilizing blood sugar levels, supporting heart health.
There is such a thing as a “pea / bean diet” in general. Doctors advise you to “sound” your tired body and lose extra pounds. Note that the diet is easily tolerated, does not go against muscle loss and is balanced in terms of major nutrients. Do not forget that the skin cells are regenerated during the procedure … and at the end of the diet tests you will remember something very sensitive: grains can increase the production of gas in the intestines. So here’s the thing to consider.
* It is best to soak dry grains in cold water for 12 hours before cooking. During this time, the amount of gas-producing substances in the grains is greatly reduced.
* It is best to twist the food with a new ditch to avoid the “musical” consequences of bean sprouts. Or the seeds of Dolce, Fungus, Anise. You can chew two grains after eating.
* Grains are not the only foods that stimulate bowel movements. Therefore, it is undesirable to combine them with other provoctors: any cabbage, celery, mushrooms, asparagus. Garlic and onions – in small quantities.
* In boiling grains you can add one of the spices to prevent constipation: cinnamon, ginger, ginger, cumin seeds, corridor, cloves.
The article was published in the March 23, 2020, issue of “Bean Variety” in the newspaper “St. Petersburg Vodomsti” No. 051 (6649).